June 8, 2023
United State

Salmonella: Outbreaks, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment


Salmonella is a type of bacteria that can cause a wide range of infections, from mild gastroenteritis to severe bloodstream infections. The bacteria are found in the intestines of many animals, including birds, reptiles, and mammals. In this article, we will discuss the outbreaks, causes, symptoms, and treatment of salmonella infections.


Salmonella outbreaks are relatively common and can occur in a variety of settings, such as restaurants, nursing homes, and schools. The outbreaks are often caused by contaminated food, particularly poultry, eggs, and raw or undercooked meat. The bacteria can also be transmitted through contaminated water or contact with infected animals.

In recent years, there have been several high-profile salmonella outbreaks that have affected large numbers of people. In 2018, a salmonella outbreak linked to raw turkey products sickened over 350 people in 42 states. The outbreak was traced back to a single supplier, and over 150 people were hospitalized as a result.


Salmonella infections are caused by the Salmonella enterica bacterium. There are over 2,500 serotypes of this bacterium, and they can cause a range of illnesses in humans. The most common serotypes associated with human infections are Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis.

The bacteria can be found in a variety of foods, including raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and eggs. They can also be found in contaminated water, soil, and surfaces, such as countertops and cutting boards. Salmonella can be transmitted from person to person through contact with fecal matter, particularly in settings such as daycare centers and nursing homes.


The symptoms of salmonella infection can vary depending on the severity of the illness. In some cases, people may not experience any symptoms at all, while in others, the infection can be life-threatening. The most common symptoms of salmonella infection include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting


Diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting are all common symptoms of gastrointestinal infections, which can be caused by various pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

Also, Diarrhea is characterized by loose or watery stools and is caused by an increased amount of water in the stool or decreased absorption of water by the intestines. Diarrhea can lead to dehydration, which is a serious concern, particularly for infants, young children, and the elderly. It is important to drink plenty of fluids and consume electrolytes, such as those found in sports drinks, to help prevent dehydration.


Fever is an increase in body temperature above the normal range, typically indicating that the body is fighting off an infection. Also, Fever is a common symptom of many infections, including gastrointestinal infections. Mild to moderate fevers are generally not harmful, but high fevers can cause complications, particularly in young children and the elderly.

Abdominal cramps

Abdominal cramps are a common symptom of gastrointestinal infections and can range from mild to severe. Cramps are caused by contractions of the intestines and are often accompanied by other symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Cramps can be relieved by over-the-counter pain relievers or by applying heat to the affected area.


Nausea is the feeling of discomfort in the stomach that often precedes vomiting. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including gastrointestinal infections, motion sickness, and pregnancy. Nausea can often be relieved by resting, drinking clear fluids, and eating bland foods.


Vomiting is the forceful expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including gastrointestinal infections, motion sickness, and food poisoning. Vomiting can lead to dehydration, particularly if it is persistent, so it is important to drink plenty of fluids and seek medical attention if vomiting is severe or accompanied by other concerning symptoms.

Overall, these symptoms are common indicators of gastrointestinal infections and it is important to practice good hygiene and food safety habits to prevent the spread of these infections. If symptoms persist or are severe, it is important to seek medical attention to prevent dehydration and other complications.

Symptoms typically develop within 12 to 72 hours after exposure to the bacteria and can last for up to a week. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and other parts of the body, leading to complications such as sepsis, meningitis, and bone infections.


Most cases of salmonella infection do not require medical treatment and will resolve on their own within a week. However, in severe cases or in people with weakened immune systems, medical intervention may be necessary.

Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluid and electrolyte replacement to prevent dehydration. Antibiotics may also be prescribed to treat severe or complicated infections, but they are not typically used in cases of mild to moderate illness.


Preventing salmonella infection is largely a matter of practicing good hygiene and food safety habits. Some key measures to take include:

  • Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water before handling food and after handling raw meat or poultry.
  • Cook meat and poultry to a safe internal temperature, as recommended by the USDA.
  • Avoid eating raw or undercooked eggs and meats.
  • Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly before eating them.
  • Store food at the appropriate temperature to prevent bacterial growth.
  • Clean and sanitize kitchen surfaces, utensils, and cutting boards regularly.

When To See A Doctor

If you experience symptoms of salmonella infection, such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps, it is recommended that you contact your healthcare provider. Your doctor can perform diagnostic tests, such as a stool culture, to confirm the presence of the bacteria and determine the appropriate treatment.

In particular, it is important to seek medical attention if you are experiencing severe or persistent symptoms, or if you are in a high-risk group, such as young children, the elderly, or people with weakened immune systems. Additionally, if you suspect that you may have been exposed to salmonella through a known outbreak or contaminated food, you should contact your doctor for advice.


Salmonella is a common type of bacteria that can cause a range of infections, from mild gastroenteritis to severe bloodstream infections. The bacteria can be found in a variety of foods and can be transmitted through contact with infected animals or contaminated water. The symptoms of salmonella infection include diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps, and treatment typically involves supportive care and, in severe cases, antibiotics.

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